Ecclesiastes 1

All Is Vanity 1The words of the Preacher,Or Convener, or Collector; Hebrew Qoheleth (so throughout Ecclesiastes) the son of David, king in Jerusalem.

2VanityThe Hebrew term hebel, translated vanity or vain, refers concretely to a &ldblquot;mist,&rdblquot; &ldblquot;vapor,&rdblquot; or &ldblquot;mere breath,&rdblquot; and metaphorically to something that is fleeting or elusive (with different nuances depending on the context). It appears five times in this verse and in 29 other verses in Ecclesiastes of vanities, says the Preacher,
   vanity of vanities! All is vanity.
3What does man gain by all the toil
   at which he toils under the sun?
4A generation goes, and a generation comes,
   but the earth remains forever.
5The sun rises, and the sun goes down,
   and hastensOr and returns panting to the place where it rises.
6The wind blows to the south
   and goes around to the north;
around and around goes the wind,
   and on its circuits the wind returns.
7All streams run to the sea,
   but the sea is not full;
to the place where the streams flow,
   there they flow again.
8All things are full of weariness;
   a man cannot utter it;
the eye is not satisfied with seeing,
   nor the ear filled with hearing.
9What has been is what will be,
   and what has been done is what will be done,
   and there is nothing new under the sun.
10Is there a thing of which it is said,
   "See, this is new"?
It has been already
   in the ages before us.
11There is no remembrance of former things,Or former people
   nor will there be any remembrance
of later thingsOr later people yet to be
   among those who come after.

The Vanity of Wisdom 12I the Preacher have been king over Israel in Jerusalem. 13And I applied my heartThe Hebrew term denotes the center of one's inner life, including mind, will, and emotions to seek and to search out by wisdom all that is done under heaven. It is an unhappy business that God has given to the children of man to be busy with. 14I have seen everything that is done under the sun, and behold, all is vanityThe Hebrew term hebel can refer to a &ldblquot;vapor&rdblquot; or &ldblquot;mere breath&rdblquot; (see note on 1:2) and a striving after wind.Or a feeding on wind; compare Hosea 12:1 (also in Ecclesiastes 1:17; 2:11, 17, 26; 4:4, 6, 16; 6:9)

15What is crooked cannot be made straight,
   and what is lacking cannot be counted.

16I said in my heart, "I have acquired great wisdom, surpassing all who were over Jerusalem before me, and my heart has had great experience of wisdom and knowledge." 17And I applied my heart to know wisdom and to know madness and folly. I perceived that this also is but a striving after wind.

18For in much wisdom is much vexation,
   and he who increases knowledge increases sorrow.