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Text Illustrations
Hillel: "What is painful to you, do not do unto others". (Talmud, tracate Shabbat 31a; Midrash Avot de Rabbi Natan). Akiva states "Whatever you hate to have done unto you, do not do to your neighbor; wherefore do not hurt him; do not speak ill of him; do not reveal his secrets to others; let his honor and his property be as dear to thee as thine own" (Midrash Avot deRabbi Natan).


Note: Many of Jesus conflicts with "the Pharisees" were with the School of Shammai; Jesus almost always agreed with Hillel (except on divorce). From the Jewish Encyclopedia:


"…the Shammaites proposed to prevent all communication between Jew and Gentile, by prohibiting the Jews from buying any article of food or drink from their heathen neighbors. "


In contrast, the School of Hillel promoted peace and compassion. The School of Shammai was so strict and harsh that they trapped some followers of Hillel and had them killed.


The Talmud and modern Judaism descended from the School of Hillel.

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