Summary: God made certain promises to the nation of Israel, which He will fulfill. For even though they've blown it badly, God has promised to see Israel through on the basis of His own integrity and faithfulness.
ROMANS 11: 1-10
A PEOPLE [REMNANT] OF GRACE
The thrust of Romans 9–11 has primarily been Israel's rejecting Christ and rebelling against God, and God's choosing and turning to Gentiles in grace. These themes continue in chapter 11, but God's sovereign choice also involves His restoring Israel and His being magnified thereby.
Romans 9–11 uses the nation Israel to illustrate that God is faithful even when His people are fickle. You take that to the bank. You can count on Him. No matter what your situation is, no matter what you're going through, God will be faithful to you.
How can I be sure? Look at God's relationship with Israel. In chapter 9, Paul points to God's past dealings with Israel and highlights the sovereignty of God. In chapter 10, he deals with God's present dealings with Israel, based upon equity. Whether Jew or Gentle, all are invited to be saved. In chapter 11, we come to God's future dealings with Israel, which show His integrity. That is, God made certain promises to the nation of Israel, which He will fulfill. For even though they've blown it badly, God has promised to see Israel through on the basis of His own integrity and faithfulness (CIT).
The same is true for us. He who has begun a good work in us shall complete it (Philippians 1:6). That's His promise. And in it I rest. [Courson, Jon: Jon Courson's Application Commentary. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2003, S. 960]
I. A FAITHFUL GOD, 1.
II. A BELIEVING MINORITY/REMNANT, 2-4.
III. A CHOICE OF GRACE, 5-6.
IV. A HIGH COST, 7-10.
The transition from chapter 10 is seen in Paul's repetition of the rhetorical clause "I ask" in verse 1. "I say then, God has not rejected His people, has He? May it never be! For I too am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin."
Has God cast away His chosen people? There is not the slightest possibility, or, Certainly not! Romans11:1 should be noted in your Bible because many people teach that God is finished with Israel. Some contend that the church is now the recipient of the blessings that were promised to Israel and forfeited by Israel when Israel rejected Jesus Christ. Yet Romans 11 deals a deathblow to this mentality, as Paul asks, "Has God cast away His people? God forbid. No way."
God had chosen Israel as His covenant people from eternity past and entered into a relationship with them that will never be destroyed [1 Sam 12:22; Jer 31:37; 33:24–26]. God has "not rejected" them even though they have rejected Him. Their failures are not final because God is faithful.
Paul then points to himself as Exhibit B. "For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin." God isn't through with the Israelites. The point Paul makes here is not the fact that he's saved, but the way he was saved. While persecuting the church, coming against Christianity, in an audible and tangible encounter with Jesus Christ, Paul's eyes were opened (Acts 9). So, too, at a time when persecution will be coming down on Israel, when Jerusalem will be surrounded and about to be annihilated in the Tribulation period, what will happen? Suddenly, the Lord will appear, and, like Paul, Israel will realize they erred greatly and will turn to Him and be saved (Zechariah 13).