Summary: Every person who puts his or her faith in Christ is fully accepted by God.

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In this passage, Paul rebukes Peter. Other than Jesus Christ, Peter and Paul are perhaps the two most influential leaders in church history. (A passage such as this demonstrates that the Bible is not an invention of man.)

Two terms make a connection between Paul’s meeting with the apostles in Jerusalem (2:1-10) and his rebuke of Peter in Antioch.

• “Compel”: “Yet not even Titus…was compelled to be circumcised” (v. 3). “How is it, then, that you force [compel] Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?” (v. 14). In Jerusalem, the issue was circumcision. In Antioch, the issue is Jewish food laws. One of the big issues in Paul’s day: Should Gentile Christians be compelled to live like Jews?

• “The truth of the gospel”: “We did not give in to them for a moment, so that the truth of the gospel might remain with you” (v. 5). “When I saw that they were not acting in line with the truth of the gospel…” (v. 14). Again, “the truth of the gospel” is at stake.

The conflict in Antioch develops in seven stages.

(1) Peter (Cephas) comes to Antioch and begins to eat with Christian Gentiles (vv. 11a, 12b).

(2) Certain men from James came to Antioch (v. 12a).

(3) Peter becomes afraid of this group (v. 12d).

(4) His fear causes him to draw back and separate himself from the Gentile Christians (v. 12c).

(5) The rest of the Jews and even Barnabas, Paul’s partner, withdrew and joined the hypocrisy (v. 13).

(6) Therefore, Peter stood condemned, that is, guilty of wrong (v. 11).

(7) Therefore, Paul rebukes him to his face (v. 11).

When I saw that they were not acting in line with the truth of the gospel… (v. 14a).

QUESTION: “Gospel” means “good news.” What is so good about the gospel of Jesus Christ?

ANSWER: The gospel provides a way for sinners to be FULLY ACCEPTED by God?

“We who are Jews by birth and not ‘Gentile sinners’ know that a man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no one will be justified” (vv. 15-16).

Verse 16 is one of the most important verses of Galatians. The word “justified” is found three times in the verse. This is the first mention of “justification” in the letter.

• To be justified means to be declared INNOCENT before God.

• We cannot be justified by our own WORKS.

• We can only be justified by FAITH in Christ (see 3:10-14).


I said to Peter in front of them all, “You are a Jew, yet you live like a Gentile and not like a Jew. How is it, then, that you force Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?” (v. 14b).

After the Exodus, God gave to Israel laws about what they could and could not eat.

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