Summary: Highlights the sovereignty of God as seen in Romans


Romans 9-11

"Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out! “Who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor?” “Who has ever given to God, that God should repay him?” For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be the glory forever! Amen." (Romans 11:33-36).

These verses are amazing! They speak out to the majesty of God. But reading them makes more sense when they are considered as a conclusion to of a section on the sovereignty of God. Romans 9-11 are an expose of God’s righteousness as seen in His sovereignty. His sovereignty is evident in…

a. Offering Choice – Romans 9

b. Allowing Man to be Responsible – Romans 10

c. Promising Restoration if they returned – Romans 11


I. CHOICE (Romans 9)

A. Paul had great anguish about his people’s salvation (9:1-5),

1. Even to the point of giving up his salvation if that would save them (9:3).

2. They had a rich inheritance behind because God had chosen them in the past.

B. Even though God chose them, they had given up on God. Paul will show a series of arguments to prove the sovereignty of God in choice.

1. God said that Abraham had two sons, but he made clear that the promise came through Isaac (9:6-9). The true children of Abraham are children of promise.

2. Isaac and Rebekah had two sons, but before the twins were born or had done anything or good or bad God chose the younger (9:10-13). He will base his reasoning from two quotes:

a. “the older will serve the younger” Genesis 25:23

b. “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated” Malachi 1:2-3

3. Moses and Pharaoh are the next to examples (9:14-18).

a. God chose Moses because of his choice

b. God used Pharaoh in spite of his choice

4. The example from pottery (9:19-24)

a. The same as the potter has the right to what he pleases with the clay, so God can do what He wants and wills to.

b. God has the right to show wrath or mercy

c. Paul will prove his point by quoting several Scriptures (9:25-29)

C. Because the Israelites failed to follow God, the blessing of righteousness by faith could come to the Gentiles (9:30-33).

D. God is sovereign, and in His sovereignty He has the right to do what he wants.


A. God is sovereign, and in His sovereignty He calls us to choose. The choosing is our part. What we choose will determine the outcome of God’s dealing with us.

B. Paul had a desire and prayer for Israel (10:1-4)

1. It was the salvation of his people that he desired (10:1)

2. They had zeal for God, but not an informed zeal (2-3)

3. They did not understand that the revelation they were given (the Law) pointed to Jesus Christ as the giver of righteousness by the means of faith (4). They sought to achieve in their own.

C. Moses had described the righteousness of God in the Law, “…the one who does these things will live by them.”

D. The righteousness called for everyone to profess it (10:9-13)

1. One should confessed it with the mouth (9)

2. Believe in the heart that God raised Jesus from the dead (10)

3. Call on the name of the Lord for salvation (11, 13)

4. No differentiation is made between Jew and Gentile (12)

E. The need to proclaim this salvation and need to choose is that laid on the people of God (14-17).

1. Not everyone will believed it (16)

2. But faith can come only when the Word of God is heard (17). It is the hearing of God’s Good News that opens the way for anyone who wants to walk in faith toward God.

F. Israel heard it (18) but they did not understand it (19-21). That is why God took it to the Gentiles who were willing to submit to His will. What made the difference between Jews and no-Jews was not ethnic background, but choice.


A. But what would be with Israel and Gentiles?

B. God did not reject the Jews.

1. Paul was a Jew who believed in God and was not rejected by God (1). Along with Paul were many other Jews.

2. In His sovereignty used the Jews’ rejection to bring the message to the Gentiles (2-10).

C. The Gentiles needed not to become arrogant for if God rejected the Israelites because of their unbelief, why would they expect God to deal differently with them if they turned to unbelief? (11:11-24, esp 11:22).

D. Now, what will the outcome of Israel be? The answer is given in verses 25-32.

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