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Summary: An outline and brief exegesis of 1 Samuel 17:55-18:30

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Good Relationships and Strained Relationships

1 Samuel 17:55 – 18:30

29 April 09

I. His Relationship With Saul ……………………………………..1 Samuel 17:55–58

II. His Relationship With Jonathan…………………………………1 Samuel 18:1-4

III. His Changed Relationship With Saul……………………………1 Samuel 18: 8-16

IV. His Relationship With Michal ………………………………………1 Samuel 18:17-30

Intro: When David killed Goliath, his whole life changed. His success brought him new responsibilities and created a whole new life for him.

I. His Relationship With Saul …………………………………1 Samuel 17:55 – 58

Verses 55 and 56 are a flashback. Saul is speaking with his General, Abner, prior to David’s encounter with Goliath. At that time, the King ordered Abner to find out what family David belonged to. Verse 57 returns us to the present in the story. We learn that Abner immediately brought David before the king, because he was still holding Goliath’s head in his hand.

Why did Saul want to know who his father was? In verse 25, he promised tax exempt status to the family of the one who would fight Goliath. Saul probably asked so that an edict could be formulated on behalf of Jesse’s family and he may also have wanted to know more about David’s family background since David would marry one of his daughters.

This passage also demonstrates that the Lord’s Spirit was no longer with Saul. Being devoid of the Spirit, Saul also seemed to be intellectually incompetent. The image of King Saul here is sharply contrasted to the image of David later in his life. 2 Sam 14:20 states that King David “was like an angel of God, empowered to know everything in the land”.

IV. His Relationship With Jonathan…………………………………1 Samuel 18:1-4

Immediately after David’s conversation with the king, his relationship with the royal family changed forever. First, Jonathan, Saul’s firstborn son found in David a great friend. A proper translation of 18:1 would be that their souls were knit together. David and Jonathan had a lot in common, they were both young and courageous, and capable young soldiers, and they both possessed a strong faith in the Lord. They both initiated attacks against the philistines that resulted in great victories for Israel.

Jonathan loved David. That love inspired him to make a covenant with David, one that was expressed with extravagant gifts. In one day, David acquired Goliaths sword, as well as Jonathan’s sword. He had been permitted, even though he refused, to wear the kings clothing, now he was given the princes clothes. The fact that Jonathan gave him the clothing and armaments reserved for the heir to Saul’s throne clearly possesses symbolic significance.

Not only did David’s relationship with Jonathan change that day, so did his relationship with the King. He became a member of the royal household. Everything was great, until people started singing praises to him!

V. His Changed Relationship With Saul……………………………1 Samuel 18: 8-16

David’s – and thus Saul’s – phenomenal success was celebrated by all. After the Philistine campaign was concluded, and the army was returning, the women of Israel met them with songs of celebrations. What did they sing? Saul has struck down thousands and David ten thousands.

Saul did not seem to mind. He took it in stride, right? Wrong! He was furious. The Hebrew phrase in vs. 8 could be translated as “evil in his eyes”. He disliked what they were singing so much, that it was evil to him. It reminded him of something that Samuel told him in 15:28, that God would rip the kingdom from his hands and give it to a neighbor, “who is better than you”. Saul wondered if David might be the one. So, verse 9 tells us that he “eyed David from that Day on”. He kept a close watch on him, for the purpose of committing sins against him.

Saul wasted no time in trying to eliminate David as King. An evil, tormenting spirit from God came upon Saul, “rushed upon” him the scripture tells us. The idea is that it came upon him forcibly. Much like Goliath, Saul had a spear in his hand. Why? (Discuss)

So Saul though that it would be a good idea to throw the spear at David, and pin him against the wall. He tried twice. David’s willingness to remain in the room long enough for Saul to retrieve the spear and get a second shot shows David’s incredible loyalty to the king and his commitment to helping him overcome his torments.

In light of what has happened, verse twelve is very interesting. It says that, “Saul was afraid of David because the Lord was with David and had departed from Saul.” The scripture never says that David is afraid. Saul was afraid. Let’s reason this out. The Lord was not with Saul. He was afraid. The Lord was with David. He was not afraid.

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