Summary: Even though the evidence for the Exodus is overwhelming, the intelligencia intentionally ignores it because their consciences would be stung and their immorality grow more detestible. Easier to look the other way!

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1. The Ibscha Relief from the tomb of Khnumhotep II shows Semitic traders (possibly the Hyksos) coming to Egypt some 4,000 years ago. [Pic - NebMaatRa, Wikimedia Commons]. A papyrus mentions a wealthy Egyptian lord whose 77 slaves included 48 of Semitic origin.

2. By the late Middle Kingdom era, around 3700 years ago, Canaanites had actually achieved absolute power, in the form of a line of Canaanite pharaohs ruling the Lower Kingdom, coexisting with the Egyptian-ruled Upper Kingdom. (These Canaanite pharaohs included the mysterious "Yaqub" (Jacob), whose existence is attested by 27 scarabs found in Egypt, Canaan and Nubia and a famous one found at Shikmona, by Haifa.) The Jews may have been allowed to have their own leaders/”Pharaoh’s” who ruled over Goshen for the first century after Joseph. Joseph probably would have named his father Jacob the first leader over his family.

3. The mysterious group called Hyksos settled in Egypt some time before 1650 B.C. They ruled the Lower Kingdom from the city of Avaris (later called Rameses, Gen. 47:11,27; Ex. 1:11; 12:37,40). Under the Hyksos' wing, the Canaanite population in the delta grew much larger, as shown by findings in ancient Avaris (Tell el-Dab'a). The Canaanite presence is attested by pottery that was in form and chemically derived from Palestine (Bietak 1996: 10). The dominant religious burial practices in Avaris at the time were also Canaanite. The Roman-era Jewish historian Josephus identifies the Hyksos with the Israelites (Apion 1.82-83, 91). He cites the 3rd-century B.C. Egyptian scribe and priest Manetho from Sebennytus, who wrote that after their expulsion, the Hyksos wandered in the desert before establishing Jerusalem.

4. According to the scribe Manetho (Aegyptiaca or History of Egypt), the founder of monotheism was Osarisph, who later adopted the name Moses, and led his followers out of Egypt in Akhenaten's reign. Akhenaten was the heretic Pharaoh who abolished polytheism and replaced it with monotheism, worshiping only the sun disc, Aten. Akhenaten’s older brother Thutmose, who should have been the next Pharaoh, died mysteriously, possibly in the ‘death of the firstborn!’


a. A leather scroll dating to the time of Ramesses II (1303 BC-1213 BC) describes a close account of brick-making apparently by enslaved prisoners of the wars in Canaan and Syria, which sounds very much like the biblical account. The scroll describes 40 taskmasters, each with a daily target of 2,000 bricks (see Exodus 5:6).

b. The tomb of vizier Rekhimire, ca. 1450 B.C., shows foreign slaves “making bricks for the workshop-storeplace of the Temple of Amun at Karnak in Thebes” and for a building ramp. [Wikimedia Commons].

c. Other Egyptian papyruses (Anastasi III & IV) discuss using straws in mud bricks, as mentioned in Exodus 5:7.

d. The Egyptian papyrus Bologna 1094, tells how two workers fled their taskmaster “because he beat them”.

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