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Summary: Lesson 8 in a series on holiness as seen in Leviticus; Examining three great pictures from the Day of Atonement

The Day of Atonement

Leviticus 16 – Lesson 8

I. Introduction

A. Atonement

1. Definition

a) From the Hebrew word, kapar.

b) Literal meaning is to cover.

c) Hebrew meaning is to ransom and to remove with a price.

d) Used 16 times in Leviticus 16.

2. Demanded

a) God’s holiness demands action against sin.

b) Zephaniah 3:5 – “The Lord is righteous in her (Jerusalem) midst. He will do no unrighteousness. Every morning, He brings justice to light.”

c) Psalm 7:11 – “God is a just judge and God is angry with the wicked every day.”

3. Designed – The Day of Atonement

a) Appointed Day (16:29) – The tenth day of the seventh month (September/October) – The Right Day

b) Announced Purpose (16:30-34) – To deal with the sins of Israel – The Right Reason

c) Afflicted People (16:29, 31) – The People were to afflict (Humble) themselves. – The Right Attitude

d) Assigned Procedure (3-28) – The Right Way

B. Portraits in Leviticus 16

1. Three Great Pictures

2. That demonstrates the power and purpose of God’s redemptive work for man.

II. Three Portraits of the Day of Atonement

A. The Great Priest of God

1. Aaron’s Role In Atonement – Type and Shadow

a) Preparations (1-3, 5-6) – Sacrifices readied and secured.

b) Humiliation (4a) – Removed the decorative robe for the simple.

c) Sanctification (4b) – Washing his body and garments.

d) Confession (6,21) – Sacrifice for his sins and his household’s.

e) Intercession (7-10, 15-22) – Sacrifice on behalf of Israel.

f) Decoration (23-24) – Dressed again in the ceremonial dress.

g) Devotion (3,5,24) – Burnt offerings as a sign.

2. Jesus the Great High Priest – The Anti-Type and Fulfillment

a) Jesus in now the Superior High Priest – Hebrews 7:27, 9:11-15, 10:11-14

a. In Jesus, the glory of God and the burden of man come beautifully together.

b. As Aaron carried the burden for Israel, Jesus carried a great burden for man – Mark 14:34

b) Jesus as High Priest – Mediator and Sacrifice

a. Aaron was spotless in dress, but Jesus was spotless in character – Hebrews 4:15, 7:26

b. Aaron entered the earthly tabernacle, Jesus entered the heavenly tabernacle – Hebrews 9:11-12

c. Aaron entered behind the veil, Jesus tore down the veil of separation – Mark 15:38

d. Aaron offered sacrifices for his own sins, Jesus became sin for all – 2 Corinthians 5:21

e. Aaron made atonement year by year, Jesus made it once for all – Hebrews 10:12-14

f. Aaron sacrifices for a nation, Jesus sacrificed for the world – Matthew 20:28

g. Aaron offered the blood of animals, Jesus offered His own blood - 1 Peter 1:18-19

h. Christ is now the mediator – 1 Timothy 2:5-6

B. The Great Pardon

1. The Scapegoat

a) Two goats were involved in the Day of Atonement

a. One was sacrificed and its blood was carried into Holy of Holies.

b. The second shall be sent into the wilderness and bear the iniquities of the children of Israel.

c. The first goat symbolized the price for atonement and the second symbolized the results of atonement.

d. Together they were one offering for sin.

b) Each goat represents a type or shadow of Christ work – Living and dying.

c) Again the problem with the scapegoat is seen in it limitation – Year by Year

2. The Sacrificial Lamb

a) In Christ we see both goats – The one that died and the one that lived – Revelation 5:6

b) Instead of a goat Jesus is pictured as a Lamb.

a. John 1:29 – “Behold the Lamb of God that takes away the sins of the world.

b. It was necessary for Him to shed blood – Hebrews 9:22

c. It was also necessary for Him to be our scapegoat or substitute for sin – Ephesians 1:7, 2 John 2:2

c) The great pardon is seen in God’ forgiving and forgetting – Romans 11:27, Hebrews 8:12

C. The Great Possibility

1. The Need for Individual Accountability

a) The Israelites were to afflict (humble) themselves on that day.

a. It is a reminder of the affliction brought to the Hebrew people by the Egyptians – Exodus 1:11-12

b. The affliction on the Day of Atonement was carried out through fasting and confession of sin.

c. It required personal reflection and repentance.

b) The day was a Sabbath and not work was done on that day, save the redeeming work of the priest – More than likely a picture of God’s grace rather than works of merit.

c) The right attitudes and action were to be demonstrated on the Day of Atonement.

d) Each person still had to possess a right relationship with God.

2. The Possibility of Salvation for a Christian is seen in the Day of Atonement.

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